Studies to express Six Ways of Time

ADDING SUBTRACTION: Wasting Time in Space

Architecture is designed to increase our productivity – think of features like uniform workspaces, straight pathways, or purely functional rooms arranged to optimize tasks. When forced into constant productivity, we gain efficiency, but we end up exhausted and disconnected from one another. We need to design subtraction spaces in our workspaces and everyday life, spaces that accommodate the feelings and dreams of the occupant.

By challenging the perception that time just moves on and cannot be controlled, people can shift time. Subtraction spaces invite people to choose to actively shift time.

While addressing the social problem of excessive productivity with an architectural solution, I seek to improve mental health and create spaces that encourage connection between people. Subtracting programmed areas while simultaneously adding undefined spaces into existing buildings displays the ability of architecture to foster moments of freedom in overly efficient lives and reconfigure life around what matters.


Time converted to space through physical models.

Six Ways of Time


Most people think that time is fixed, but in fact, time passes relatively to us. We feel that time moves very quickly or slowly. Time is incredibly elastic and changes according to an individual’s choices and priorities. People’s choices and priorities can shift to no longer be just about productivity. While acknowledging the preciousness of time other than productive time, people pay attention to other times past and future, and themselves. We need to make good use of this subjective time, breaking away from the concept of time that only slides forward without looking back.

In this thesis, freed from the concept that time should be used only productively and continued, six alternative ways of using time are presented: start, reverse, break, accumulate, prolong, and rerun. These six ways of time are substituted into space through the process of free-associating architectural and sensory elements.


Different times are combined to address the problem.

Time Solution


The context around us that drives toxic productivity and sequentially produces negative implications is largely divided into four categories: tense/pressured environment, jammed/crowded space, heavy atmosphere, and repetitive workload.

Depending on the Six Ways of Time, different times are combined to address the problems in context. The concepts of each time are not simply attached but are merged with the elements of time to make a subtraction space. Subtraction spaces come in two sizes. The small one is 5m x 5m, where two times are mixed, and the large one is 5m x 10m, where three times are blended to create a new shape.


Subtraction spaces of the four modalities.

Subtraction Space

foamcore, color paper, corrugated paper, and board
6" X 12"

The combined time spaces become one subtraction space. This space is developed into a total of four, and the external blue façade reveals that this is the subtractions space.

Subtraction spaces are determined by the intervention in size according to the available space, time, and cost of the host building. The two physical models exhibit the entire large subtraction spaces. The other two models express the space divided into two, showing the potential for the small subtraction spaces to be expanded. Even if a small one is initially selected and installed first, it can be upgraded to a larger subtraction space according to the needs of users.


People who use subtraction spaces differently.

Subtraction Experience


Some believe that the right direction in our lives is not to waste a single moment, but to use time with effect toward results. However, our real challenge is to make the wisest decisions about what makes our lives meaningful and pursue truly sustainable productivity.
Subtraction space is a medium that allows us to escape from our lives focused on productivity and realize what is most precious to each of us. In addition, these spaces fulfill the role of an external space by enhancing cognition and creativity, making us calm, inducing unusual movements, socializing, and distracting the mind. This thesis proposes a spatial alternative to the productive use of time and typical working space.


Strategies for applying subtraction spaces to buildilngs.

Adding Subtraction Strategy


Applied Adding Subtraction



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